Take it easy

For a lot of athletes, fall is the time of year that their competitive season winds to a close, the weather becomes less hospitable, and their activity level changes with the seasons. Whether you live in sunny California or somewhere in Norway with 3 hours of twilight during the winter, it’s not a bad idea to take it easy for at least a month or two between seasons. If you’ve had a busy season, then reducing the intensity and volume of your training and adding in some basic cross training activities will benefit you in the long run. The harder you’ve trained and raced, the more useful this recovery period will be. Even a total rest for a time can be good. Then again, if you mostly just train to stay fit and healthy, then you may not have to do so much to give yourself a therapeutic rest.

As much as I love training taking it easy is essential to maintaining overall health (mental and physical) and homeostasis for the systems in your body. This is true on a small scale of days and weeks, and a larger one of months and years. More and more people these days understand this basic truth of athletic training: It isn’t hard training, but good recovery that makes you perform as an athlete. Yes, you can get too much of a good thing. There is such a thing as too many good workouts, just like there is such a thing as too much recovery, but for the most part, endurance athletes have more of an issue with the former and not the latter. To that end, here are some basic points to remember for this time of year…

Lower your intensity. First and foremost,  lowering the intensity of your physical activity will allow your body to relax and reduce the stress it’s subject to, facilitating recovery in the process. Avoid most or all of your above threshold efforts for at least a couple of months. That’s not to say that you can’t go harder or faster than that intermittently, just don’t do any prolonged efforts or real workouts at higher intensities.

Lower your volume. Reduce your overall training volume per week and per month by at least 30-50% for at least 1-2 months. Your body won’t be exposed to a large calorie deficit every day or two while you’re training if you’re only doing half of the volume that you’re familiar with. So, your body will again be less stressed and be allowed to recover more fully than just a few days of easy training will do.

Get some therapy, both physical and mental. Be sure to include some stretching, yoga, massage, sleep, etc. in your routine. Take that training time and turn it into recovery time. Doing things to increase recovery physically, improve flexibility, or improve strength and balance will benefit you in the long run. Also, as much as training is fun, it can also be stressful. And, the time you spend on training can make you more pressed for time elsewhere in your life, so pay attention to stress reduction practices and look for places to streamline your life or carve out time for relaxation, meditation, or even just listening to mellow music that you like… all of those those things can help you out.

Get plenty of sleep. More people say that sleeping 7 hours a night is plenty for optimal health. That may be true for a mostly sedentary person when you’re talking about statistical averages and large populations, but that’s not addressing the reasons for the sleep and why certain individuals get 5, 7, or 9 hours a night. Our bodies evolved to sleep a lot more than we currently get, and as long as you don’t have a sleep disorder, there’s no way for you to sleep any amount that would be too much. Rather, most people learn to get by with less than enough, so do what you can, when you can to sleep more. Sleep is almost always the strongest driver of recovery.

Eat healthily. This is also a no-brainer that should always be a priority. But, especially if you’re taking a little less of your time to train, maybe you could use a little bit of that time to look at your diet and see if there are changes that you could or should make that you think would work better for you. Pay attention to what has worked for you in the past and what hasn’t. Try to identify bad habits that you have and strategies to eliminate them. For example, take your lunch to work instead of eating out, you’ll probably save money and improve your nutrition. And, when in doubt, eat more vegetables.

Look ahead to next year. If it’s October, then you definitely don’t need to worry about workouts for your spring and summer races next year, but you can pay attention to how you’re going to prepare for them when the time comes. Pick out your coach for the coming season, email your coach with some feedback about this last year and what you think would be good for next season, or work out the details of your own training plan. Whether you’re following someone else’s guidance for your training or you plan it out yourself, whether you have plans written out to the day or a general month to month guideline, do pay attention to how your knowledge and experience would guide your training choices. When you plan ahead, you can plan reasonably. If you don’t have a plan and make things up day by day and week by week, based on group rides and whatever races happen that weekend, then you’re unlikely to have nearly the same level of success as you would if you planned ahead. Identify the races that you care about, the ones you’ll use for training, and the ones you should skip. That way you can go into races with an appropriate level of focus and psychological investment, rather than getting caught up with every race as though it’s your last, and keep your sights on whatever goals you have. Then again, maybe you know that you don’t particularly care about any special races and just have to pick the races you can do based on your workload throughout the year. That’s fine too, but it’s good to know that and get your mental game straight either way.

Hopefully you can have a good time taking it easy and looking ahead to all of the new experiences you’ll have in the coming year. It’s the time of year to do it, so enjoy it and take advantage of the break from training and racing.

Triathlon Body Mass and Pacing

Thoughts on Triathlon continued from the last article…

Body Composition: As a cyclist, I know that I perform well when I weigh about 163-165 lbs/74-75kg. I’m 6’2″, and that puts me at about a BMI of about 21. That’s great for cycling, but for triathlon, I’m not sure yet what’s ideal. So the question is: what do I want to weigh? Swimming may benefit from having more power, having thicker arms, and extra body mass won’t really hurt. Cycling generally would also benefit from having extra muscle mass and the power that would come with it. Most events are flat enough that extra watts would yield faster times even if accompanied by extra body mass. But, the big problem is that running is much more efficient at a lower body weight and is also going to reduce the stress on your body in training and racing. As long as you’re healthy, weighing less will usually make you a better, more injury free runner.

So, what’s the sweet-spot that’s going to allow you to swim effectively, bike quickly, and run efficiently? Well, that’s a tough one. I’m tend to think that the optimal triathlete body mass for me will end up being less than it has been for cycling, but I’ll have to feel it out and see how my training and racing goes as I experiment with trying to lose a few pounds. Without going into too much detail right now, I suspect that 155-160 lbs/70-72kg (or a BMI of about 20) will be my personal ideal body mass for triathlon. Hopefully I can preserve most of my cycling power but improve my running speed and reduce my chances of injury enough that it makes the total finish times lower.

Ultimately, any big changes in body composition will be due largely to dietary changes. I think it’s clear from research and personal experience for millions of people that “going on a diet” isn’t a long term or enjoyable strategy to change body mass. Rather, I think it’ll be key to always focus on getting good nutritious food with plenty of plant matter, healthy fats, maybe some meats, and mostly slowly digested/high-nutrient carbohydrate for more intense training, except perhaps for some hard training sessions and for recovery immediately following training sessions. I want to focus on changing eating habits in such a way that I’m still getting plenty of nutrition, but hopefully work with my body to have a less anabolic (muscle building and fat storing) hormonal state, largely through limiting insulin. This would be done primarily through limiting or eliminating sugars and refined carbohydrates in favor of slowly digested carbohydrates a times, like sweet potatoes, legumes, some fruit, maybe oats. And at other times, that will mean increased fat consumption and a reduction in carbohydrate intake generally, which should reduce insulin production and also encourage your body to rely more on fat for fuel because of a lower availability of carbohydrate for exercise. Basically, I’ve come to think that cycling macronutrients in the diet has promise as a training technique to allow for intense workouts with higher carbohydrate intake and increased adaptation to fat burning with a higher fat diet, done in alternating blocks of training.


paces, power, and energy

Calculating energy expenditure swimming is not easily done with any accuracy, so for all intents and purposes I’m going to leave that out of the equation. But, figuring out an optimal pacing strategy for the cycling and running legs of a triathlon is an interesting and potentially very useful academic exercise. In order to finish with the fastest time, you might assume that you want to have even pacing. Or, in other words, you might assume that you should aim for the highest average and most consistent energy expenditure per unit of time throughout the duration of the event. So, that’s going to mean that per hour you’d be burning the same number of calories in the water, on the bike, and on the run. Again, swimming it’s hard to measure energy expenditure, but cycling and running is a little bit more so. If you have a power meter, then you can know exactly what your energy expenditure is and there is zero guesswork about it. For running, you can estimate within a small margin of error what your energy expenditure is at different paces given certain assumptions like body mass. So, then it’s all set, you just figure out what wattage you want to push on the bike and what pace you want to run that’s going to be the highest average you can sustain for those two legs, right? Well, maybe not.

Triathlon isn’t a calorie measuring contest, it’s a race. So, time matters and not power or pacing, per se. So, with this in mind, it’s good to remember that as you increase your speed on the bike (and running, but to a much lesser extent) your power/calorie expenditure goes up exponentially. So, if you want to increase your speed by 10%, then you need to increase your power output by about 20%. Likewise, if you reduce your speed by 10%, then you save about 20% of the energy (per hour) that you’re using to cover that ground. Running, however, is much more linear, and if you increase your speed by 10% then your energy expenditure may go up, say, 11%. So, it seems like saving a little energy on the bike may lose some time but make up for it in saved energy that you can use to run faster. But, the bike leg is the longest, and is generally about 40-45% longer than the run leg. So, what do we end up thinking is the best pacing strategy? Again, I’m sure I will learn more from personal experience what is best for me, but it seems you may want a 95% effort on the bike in order to save just a little extra for the run. That might mean that I sacrifice 2m on the bike in order to try to gain 3-4m on the run. We’ll see how that plays out.

Above is a chart that I made up using a few pace/calorie calculators for running that I found online and some estimates based on personal experience for cycling speed at different powers. We won’t assume all of the numbers are right on, but they’re close enough to be considered very reasonable and more importantly show important trends… Basically, if you want to run faster, then you can have better aerobic fitness or you can weigh less or both. If you want to ride faster bike legs, then 90% of that will be determined wholly by your power output, with minimal impact coming from body mass. The problem is that more power on the bike may be easier with more body mass (and therefore more muscle), but running will be hindered by that extra mass. I think at the end of the day, I’ll be aiming to keep a power level in the low-to-mid 300w range (say 320-350) and a pacing that will put me in the low 1:20s for the run (~4min/km pace). I’m really looking forward to learning how to best approach the body mass and pacing questions. As important as these issues may be, it’s important to always remember that health and fitness comes first. No matter how much you weigh and how well or poorly you pace the event, fitness is key no matter what.

Thoughts on Triathlon

As I work on transitioning into triathlon, I’m clearly approaching a different set of challenges and have to orient my training very differently than I’ve been doing for road cycling the last several years. The obvious questions I face, along with any athlete, is how do I best train for my goal events? Well, here are some of the main topics I’ve been thinking about, which I’ll post a few articles about:

– positives and challenges as I move to triathlon

– training structure and periodization (and how it will differ from past training)

– body composition/body mass

– pacing (bike versus running, even pacing versus not)

To get things started, I thought I would address two of these issues. The first two and last two listed above seem highly related to me, so I’ll do two at a time.

Positives: I’m happy with all of my cycling experience and hope that I can sustain a lot of the bike fitness that I have from road cycling as I try to enhance my swimming and running fitness. With the cycling fitness that I have, I will probably lean on that training more than the others as I transition into running and swimming more and more. This is largely because my workout quality and risk for injury will probably be better on the bike than running, but the aerobic fitness will carry over well to running. Swimming, on the other hand, seems like its own thing to a certain extent and relies on its own training and technique development.

That being said, I’m also pleased to look back on my running background and derive some level of confidence about my previous ability to train at a relatively high mileage and my previous running performances. Already, I know from the feel of things that I am basically as fit of a runner as I ever was in past years, because my training paces and faster running paces in workouts feel very much the same. But, I do have a little extra body mass that helps with cycling, but just hinders efficiency running and increases the stress on my bones and joints. (Not that it matters, but I used to weigh about 138-142lb/63-64kg as a runner through high-school and early college, whereas as a cyclist I have been more like 162-165lb/73-75kg.)

Concerns/Challenges: My biggest two concerns or challenges are swimming and injury prevention, primarily with running. More specifically, swimming is an event driven largely by technique, and I know that I will need to work on improving that in order to be competitive. I’m confident that I can, but at the same time, it’s not like running and cycling where you generally will get better by just doing the sport. Swimming requires learning and practicing good technique. Ultimately, it’s the sport in which I have the least experience and the most room for improvement.

In order to try to move forward and keep a good outlook on things, I’ve proactively tried to focus on improving technique and taking positive lessons or experiences out of every swim practice. Rather than be concerned about how I might not be a good swimmer now, I can try to identify things (or use other people to help identify things) that I can work on and improve. And, just as a general observation and experience that I’ve had so far, it seems like swimming should probably look easy. If you look like you’re trying hard, you’re probably not working very efficiently and are wasting energy, so if you can make it look easy, that is likely to be a very efficient technique… Clearly that won’t necessarily teach you anything about what good technique is or what’s going to be fast, but it’s something to keep in mind.

As far as injury prevention is concerned, I’ve never had any serious running injuries in the past and have been very happy about that. Even in college as I worked up to keeping a pretty steady 50-80 mile training load per week, I was able to avoid anything other than minor passing aches and soreness. That being said, I haven’t run much in several years and have more weight impacting my bones and joints, so just being aware of those things, I am trying to be proactive in keeping the volume and intensity of my running modest. I intend to increase it slowly and steadily, paying attention to any discomfort that I feel, so that I can hopefully avoid any trouble.

Overall training structure and periodization: Triathlon is definitely a very different sport than cycling and has very different energy demands, so the training structure will necessarily be different in order to accomplish different goals. I’ve done a lot of thinking about how I want to arrange my cycling, running, swimming, and cross training.

First off, the events themselves will be determined mostly by your ability to sustain a high pace for a long time, whereas in bike races that’s very important but so too is your ability to put in much more intense efforts intermittently at crucial moments. In training for bike races, intensity usually rises progressively throughout a training cycle, but for triathlon, it seems a different approach should be taken. Roughly speaking, I think that the first 2/3 of a training cycle for a triathlete should get higher in volume and intensity as the athlete tries to build up their endurance and high-end aerobic fitness. This would look similar to a traditional progression for a bike racer. But, in the last several weeks before a key event, the triathlete will probably engage in a cycle that narrows the focus (and reduces their intensity a little) to focus specifically on training at or around race-pace, building their tolerance to those intensities. I think I’ll approach the sport by trying to build the most endurance and aerobic capacity that I can before narrowing the focus down to threshold or just below as I get ready for goal events. I will still want to be doing some longer and more intense workouts to try to sustain a high level of endurance and aerobic capacity, because I think that will still be important. So, that might look something like this graph:

triathlon macrocycle

A training cycle might start out with moderate volume, but quickly increase over a few months and then sustained at a high level before being reduced in the last 3-6 weeks before a key event. Intensity would also start out at a moderate level, slowly increase, and then peak maybe 2-3 months out from a key event before being decreased to focus more specifically on race-pace intensities and less so on above threshold efforts to develop maximal aerobic capacity or anaerobic fitness. Likewise, cross training (e.g. strength training, plyometric training, flexibility training) would start off at maybe 2x/week, progress to 3x/week as volume and overall foundational fitness progresses, and finally could be reduced as sport specific training intensity increases, at which time it may be included just 1-2x/week. Of course, this is vague and general, but I hope gets the idea across. Basically, you still want to develop maximal aerobic fitness, but I think that then it will be good to focus that fitness on race-pace specific training for 3-6 weeks going into a key event so that you can use your fitness to its potential by increasing tolerance to the sub-maximal efforts required by triathlon.

Again, because of my recent background, I will rely more on cycling than running to gain fitness initially, but will increase my running volume as I find that my body tolerates it (i.e. that I get less and less sore or stiff from running). I do think, however, that I will never engage in truly high-mileage running, because of the increased risk for injury and because I know that runners are more prone to anemia than cyclists or swimmers, largely because of the trauma that blood cells sustain while pounding the roads or trails.  I don’t know if this was the case with me, but I do know that I personally had low blood values (i.e. hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) back when I was a runner, whereas the last few years as a cyclist, my blood values have been much more normal (say, hematocrit around 42-44 versus 36-38 as it was 10 years ago). Of course there are other factors in involved in this, so it’s hard to say for sure, but it’s definitely something I want to monitor. To that end, with moderate running volume I will focus more on brick workouts and running at or around race-pace more than just getting in mileage at slower paces. This should allow effective training at a lower volume and maximize the improvements at race-pace, because runners tend to get the most efficient at the paces they regularly practice. For that reason, I want to practice the neural and muscular stresses of running at those paces more than I want to rack up a lot of miles just for the sake of doing so. (Again, I would insert a plug for my favorite book on endurance sport training, Better Training for Distance Runners by Martin and Coe, advocating for multi-pace training as opposed to the popular but increasingly outdated Lydiard method.)

Likewise, I will try to develop good swimming technique through practice in training sessions, but there is limited fitness to gain from swimming itself. Even though it is probably my biggest liability right now in the sport, it’s also the shortest leg and relies the least on fitness per se and more on technique and being able to quickly and efficiently cover the distance. Just like biking, as you increase your speed swimming, the effort and energy required goes up exponentially, but for the time gained, that curve is even steeper. Namely, if you go faster on the bike and try to save 2-3m then you probably have to go maybe 4% harder, but if you want to save 2-3m on the swim, then you have to go probably 10-15% harder assuming you’re swimming in the mid-20m range. Again, 70.3 favors fitness and effort in cycling and running more than in swimming. I will do what I can to get as fast as I can, but focus on doing so in the most relaxed fashion that will allow a smooth transition into the bike leg with minimal wasted energy… again, assuming you’re an average to good swimmer, saving 2m on the swim will likely tire you out and cost you more time later in the race.