Activities, Foods, and Hormones

Just recently I posted an article suggesting that it’s good to think of the things we do and eat as all having a direct influence on our hormones and what driving forces are at work in our bodies. This is a large part of what makes you get stronger or weaker, healthier or less so. What follows are some summary items about various things we do that have big consequences, telling our bodies to burn fat or store it, build protein or recycle it, etc. etc.


  • just keeping a steady routine of easy to moderate exercise most days will do a lot to help keep your body operating smoothly, help a little with insulin sensitivity, lower stress, and help keep you ready for higher intensity exercise
  • intense exercise can be a huge stress on your body and if you’re healthy then you’ll adapt by becoming more capable of dealing with a similar stress in the future (endurance exercise builds endurance, intensity builds high-end fitness, etc.)
  • if you’re short on time, then prioritize intensity, because it’s the best and only way to get the most fitness building stress on your body in a short time
  • a short intense workout drives insulin sensitivity and testosterone production, and the food you eat drives positive fitness changes rather than being stored for future use… basically, working out hard (sprints, VO2 intervals, lifting weights, hard endurance days) makes it hard for your body not to make use of your food to make you fitter for the first several hours after the workout


  • your body knows what it’s doing, don’t mess it up!
  • sleep enough (7-9h) at regular times every day (e.g. go to bed at 10 or 11 pm every night, weekends included)
  • try to minimize exposure to bright, blue (read computer/phone) lights as you get ready to sleep
  • if you can’t turn off your phone, computer, or TV, then consider getting f.lux to take the blue light out of your computer monitor when it’s nighttime so your body gets a stronger signal that it’s time to get ready to sleep
  • the production of growth hormone happens largely at night (while you’re sleeping and fasting)
  • regular sleep patterns help you sleep better and establish stronger circadian rhythms. irregular sleep patterns tend to disrupt rhythmic hormone production (e.g. melatonin) and make it more challenging to sleep well and get the rest you need


  • eating fruits and vegetables is key to general health on every level, with vegetables not really having a huge direct influence on the major hormones in question, but fruit can drive insulin production (but less so than most grain products)
  • eating plenty of calories with some protein and carbohydrate immediately after hard exercise is the best thing you can do for recovery and basically the safest time to eat a large quantity (it drives insulin and IGF-1 production, while providing the carbohydrate needed to restock glycogen stores and the protein needed to build new enzymes to get fitter)
  • eat carbohydrate in proportion to the volume of high-intensity training that you’re doing so you have fuel for the hard efforts (if you’re not working out hard, then you probably don’t need high-octane fuel)
  • feel free to eat high-glycemic carbohydrate after hard workouts, but otherwise, I think it’s best for general health, steady energy, and insulin sensitivity to stick mostly to low-glycemic carbohydrates (vegetables, sweet potatoes, oatmeal, maybe fruit, but a bit less bread, pasta, rice, etc. unless you’re doing a lot of heavy training or doing a stage race)


  • there is increasing interest in the benefit of short-term, long-term, and intermittent fasting for public health and athletic performance
  • fasting for more than a few hours between meals (i.e. for 12-16h or more) increases growth hormone, insulin sensitivity, and changes your body’s protein turnover dynamics (causing more recycling and apoptosis)
  • like exercise, fasting is a stress on your body that facilitates changes in your hormones and fuel metabolism which appear to be all positive (it’s an expansive topic and I’ll leave it at that for now, but if you’re interested just do some online searching for “intermittent fasting” and look around at a few studies and academics looking into it)
  • consider occasionally fasting before low and medium intensity workouts and endurance sessions, the hormonal state created by fasting makes lower intensity training more effective (increased fat-burning, increased endurance, increased aerobic enzyme production)

eating carbohydrate

  • carbohydrate is probably the most studied performance enhancing substance out there, and quickly digested carbohydrate during exercise is one of the most certain ways to increase aerobic exercise performance for the session in which it is used
  • consuming carbohydrate in quantities of 100-300 kcal/hr or even more will increase speed/power production during training sessions or races, increasing race-day performance or workout intensity
  • consuming carbohydrate before exercise reduces fat burning and increases reliance on carbohydrate during the subsequent exercise session (this is undesirable for endurance training, but may be desirable for high-intensity sessions)
  • consuming carbohydrate immediately following moderate to high-intensity workouts helps regenerate lost glycogen and fuels the next workout. this is the time your body is going to restore lost glycogen the fastest, and lengthens the time your body is sensitive to those calories
  • at all times, carbohydrate is anabolic (“building”) and helps your body store carbohydrate, fat and build protein, so after workouts, that’s good (you want to store glycogen and build proteins/enzymes), the rest of the time, it’s open for debate depending on what else is going on
  • excessive carbohydrate leads to excessive insulin and leads to insulin resistance and increased adiposity, when not preceded by hard workouts or periods of fasting, and some researchers believe greatly increases your risk for certain cancers (because of chronically elevated insulin and IGF-1 levels)

eating fat

  • eating fat has minimal impact on many of your hormones, but does increase satiety hormones and may increase testosterone
  • fat is usually slowly digested (some fats excepted, like coconut oil and other medium-chain fatty acids), so large quantities of fat soon before training is generally undesirable because it directs blood towards your digestive system and away from your working muscles
  • fat is nice because it has very little impact on your hormones and fuel metabolism
  • fat is good because consuming it doesn’t encourage fat storage (as is the case with carbohydrate), and doesn’t shift fuel metabolism away from fat burning towards carbohydrate burning (as with carbohydrate)
  • fat is perhaps not so good because it’s very calorie dense, so it’s easier to overconsume calories with fatty foods (e.g. nuts and nut butters, cream you might put in your coffee, oil  or dressing you may put in your salad, etc.)

eating protein

  • protein is essential for building muscle and other tissues, and usually more importantly, for building new enzymes for anything and everything under the sun (e.g. burning carbohydrate, burning fat, and all of the requisite reactions along the way)
  • protein doesn’t on it’s own make a huge impact on your insulin levels, but when consumed with carbohydrate drives insulin levels and IGF-1 levels higher in a synergesic manner (hence the often cited 4-to-1 ratio of carbohydrate to protein for recovery)
  • generally speaking, it’s hard in the developed world to be remotely deficient in protein intake, so for the most part, there’s probably no reason to be concerned about getting more protein in your diet unless you’re a strict vegan and don’t seek out beans and legumes for protein
  • it may be worth seeking out easy to digest protein immediately after harder workouts some of the time (e.g. eggs on some toast or protein powder in a fruit smoothie) to make the most of your body’s insulin and IGF-1 production immediately following a hard workout
  • some people find that consuming protein in the morning helps keep their energy and appetite more steady, and may help with maintaining a healthy weight… definitely worth trying for a period if you always skip breakfast or worse yet, just have refined carbohydrates for breakfast (bagels, processed cereals, toast, pastries, etc.)

Hopefully some of this is interesting to you and may prove useful on one or two points. I definitely don’t presume to think that I know all that much about human physiology compared to some people or compared to what I’d like to know, but it’s something that I’ve been passionate about for years and find that I often remember little things that seem relevant to me or to athletes generally and draw on them when I’m trying to make my day to day plans. Often what happens in a given day is more contingent on circumstance than plans, but still trying to tweak things here and there can make big differences.

So, what kind of stuff do I personally try to do from day to day? Well, that has changed over the years as I have learned more, as my body has changed, and as my goals have changed. I’ll go over a few different routines that I’ve used that try to take into account these features of how our bodies work in the next article…

You’re on Drugs, whether you know it or not

Did you stay up late last night? What did you have for breakfast today? Pancakes and coffee? Bacon and eggs? Do you do lots of long-steady endurance sessions? Do you do a lot of high-intensity intervals? Do you do heavy weight training? Like it or not, realize it or not… Just about everything that you do or don’t do will directly or indirectly influence your health and fitness by influencing the huge array of hormones that make our bodies what they are.

Have a tall stack of pancakes for breakfast? A huge shot of insulin. Go out and do a bunch of sprints or heavy strength training? A small shot of testosterone. Losing sleep on a regular basis? A steady drip of cortisol and increased insulin resistance. A big meal after a hard workout with carbohydrate and protein? A huge shot of insulin and IGF-1, which will help you recover and won’t increase insulin resistance, but only because it was immediately preceded by the hard workout.

On the one hand, if you think about it this should be pretty clear. Your body is always trying to maintain a state of homeostasis and adapt to its environment. So, what and when you eat and drink, how and when you exercise, sleep, and do basically everything else will influence your hormones. This has huge implications for your health and fitness over time. Clearly the title of this article is intended to be attention grabbing, but the principle it represents is important and I find it to be a useful way of thinking. This idea represents a key feature of understanding your body and is especially useful when thinking in regards to health, athletic training, and performance… The basic idea: Everything you do or don’t do, when and how you do it, acts like a drug to your body because it affects the cascade of hormones constantly changing in your internal environment.

Keep in mind, your body is very smart and is generally very good at keeping itself running smoothly and efficiently. To optimize its operation, the right stresses at the right times can make it better, whereas the wrong stresses will throw things out of alignment, and a lack of stress altogether will leave your body weak and sick in the long run. And, of course, I’m operating always on the assumption that the best way to do things is to work with your body using its own natural systems (i.e. nothing I’m writing has any interest in or relevance to anything synthetic or supplemental, except perhaps melatonin in the right circumstances).

In any case, let’s look at a handful of key hormones (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, melatonin) briefly and see how they react or can be manipulated for our benefit…


  • directly drives muscle growth, positive athletic adaptations
  • indirectly increases fat-burning
  • increases with high-intensity exercise, high-fat diet
  • decreases with high stress levels, low-fat diet

growth hormone

  • directly drives fat-burning, indirectly drives positive athletic adaptations
  • increases with exercise, fasting
  • decreases with high-carbohydrate diet


  • shuttles carbohydrate from the blood to muscles, liver
  • increases fat storage, protein synthesis
  • decreases fat burning, protein breakdown
  • increases with consumption of carbohydrates, especially high-glycemic load carbohydrates
  • decreases with exercise, fasting
  • pathology: too much insulin leads to insulin resistance, diabetes, increased hunger, increased adiposity


  • increases fat burning, appetite, protein breakdown
  • increases with exercise, lost sleep, fasting, mental/emotional stress
  • decreases with sleep, feeding, moderate exercise (e.g. walking), and basically anything relaxing
  • pathology: high-stress, low-exercise, l0w-sleep lifestyle results in chronically elevated cortisol and increased risk for most “lifestyle” diseases


  • increases protein synthesis
  • produced with feeding, i.e. carbohydrate and protein
  • increased production after a post-workout meal
  • pathology: increasingly of interest for possible/probable links to cancer when found in excess


  • helps you sleep, helps establish circadian rhythms
  • daily cycles of melatonin, circadian rhythms are sensitive to light, disruption and irregularity of sleeping patterns
  • synthetic melatonin is generally considered safe as a means of encouraging sleep and re-establishment of normal circadian rhythms

Coming up next: things we do to affect our hormones.


Damage Control: Training When You’re Slammed with Work or Life

It happens to everyone. Sometimes things are going good and steady. You wake up, you get some training in, you do your work, relax or go out on the weekends, and everything’s fine. But then something comes up or your schedule changes, and then it seems like training is disrupted, interrupted, or otherwise just plain messed up. (Skip to the bottom if you just want to skim some bullet points.)

I think that establishing a balanced rhythm or routine for your activities/commitments is one of the most important things you can do for their athletic success, personal satisfaction, and general well-being. Maybe you can ride every day and race whenever you want to, or maybe you have to squeeze in a 45m indoor training session 3x per week and just get in a slightly longer workout on the weekends, and you’re happy to get in just 5 or 6 hours on the bike each week. Whatever you can do to keep a routine and keep a steady flow of training is going to pay off in the long run. Clearly, some people have more time to train than others, or sometimes your schedule’s flexibility changes. Maybe we don’t like it, but that doesn’t really matter. What matters is that we try to make the most of the resources that we have on hand without worrying about things our of our control. It doesn’t really matter what our schedule could be like or about what other people do. Rather, making comparisons can often make us dissatisfied by thinking things could be better. Do take advantage of any tweaks you can make to your routine to maximize your productivity at work, your free time at home, and your availability to train, but never worry about the things that you can’t change or can’t control. Rather, just try to make the most of whatever it is you’re dealing with.

Do what we will, things still come up and get in the way. It can be a challenge sometimes if you get swamped at work and have long hours, if you’re planning a wedding, have a child’s soccer season or family vacation to work around… Sometimes you just can’t train the way you’d like to or the way you’re used to. Though this may be the case sometimes, I think the worst thing you can do is take an all-or-nothing approach and give up.

You might tell yourself: “This is lousy! I can’t train at all this week, next week looks like a mess, and the week after that I’m out of town for work. It looks like my training just isn’t going to happen for the next three weeks, and it’ll probably take me at least a month or two to catch up after taking a break like that! I guess it doesn’t matter what I do now, I might as well give up and just do what I can to start over in a month or two!”

Anyway, try not to worry about it, and just do what you can. Here are a few thoughts on what to do:

  • Just do what you can. 30 min on an indoor trainer before work is way better than nothing at all.
  • Commute by bike or foot. Take the long way home, or stop by the gym.
  • Stop by the gym on your lunch break. Do some strength work or a quick 30m interval session.
  • Work on your weak spots. Do some core work, strength exercises.
  • Focus on intensity. After a warm-up, doing sprints, 30 sec efforts, or 1 min efforts with short recovery is almost certainly the most efficient way to train when you’re temporarily tight on time.

If you’re stuck on a trainer or treadmill, then consider condensing the hard work of a longer ride into a quick few minutes of discomfort with short intervals or a few longer high-aerobic efforts. Basically, if you can’t train for 2 or 3 or 4 hours, then focusing on intensity will do the most for your fitness in the least amount of time. You’ll engage your muscles at a high level, create more metabolic stresses on your body, and get your heart and lungs to work at a high level. Basically, you’ll train your nervous system, your mitochondria, and your cardio-pulmonary systems at a high level for a short time, yielding far more improvements in your fitness than if you were to just do a steady session of “endurance” or “conversational” paced training for 30-40 min.

Consider the following workout suggestions to squeeze in a decent amount of training in a short period of time:

  • 10-15m steady to get warmed up
  • 5-10m alternating steady with some tempo or short accelerations to get ready to ride hard
  • workout (do one of the following):
    • 2-4 sets 5×30 sec hard, 30 sec easy
    • 2×3 min threshold, 4-6×1 min hard/maximal, 2-3 min easy between
    • 2×4 min threshold, 2×2 min VO2/hard, 2m easy
    • 3-4×6-8 min tempo easing into threshold, finishing the effort as it becomes highly uncomfortable, 2 min easy
    • 4 min threshold, 8×20 sec hard, 40 sec easy, 4 min threshold, 2 min VO2/hard, 2 min easy between efforts or sets
    • 6-8 min tempo, 2×2 min VO2, 4-6 min threshold, 6×30 sec hard, 30 sec easy, 2 min easy between efforts or sets
  • 5-10m easy spinning to cool down

If you’re tight on time, and you’re trying to develop your high-end fitness more, then try to get in more intense workouts if you can and make sure that you have a bit of a snack or meal after your workouts, nothing crazy, but just a few calories, some protein, and fluids will be good. If you’re trying to focus more in building endurance, but you’re tight on time and can’t work out that long, then you may experiment with training in the morning before you eat breakfast, skipping breakfast and training on your lunch hour, and/or limiting your carbohydrate intake a couple of days each week… all of these things will encourage your body to be in a hormonal state that favors fat metabolism and mitochondria production (i.e it encourages general aerobic/endurance fitness). If you rely on a high-carbohydrate diet all of the time, and you aren’t training at a high volume, you’re giving yourself a handicap by preventing your body from ever having to fully develop better fat-burning capabilities. If you’re a professional athlete or have a very flexible schedule and can train 4-6 hours a couple times a week or get in 20 hour training weeks, then you’ll be training at least several hours each week with relatively low glycogen. But, if you’re training 1-1.5 hours 3-4 days/week and 2-3 hours once per week, then you’re never really requiring your body to work out much or at all in a glycogen depleted state, which is perhaps the most significant stressor that makes us develop better endurance and increases our fat-burning capacity.

Don’t worry, just try to get it done. Even if you just carve out 30 minutes every day or every other day to do something, you’ll be way ahead of where you’d be without that 30 minutes, and it’s something that most of us can make time for.

Women’s Tour of California 2014

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You think I can ride that one?!

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Vendors, fans, circus.

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Media at the pre-race team presentation.

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Lots of cool color.

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Women’s ATOC brings the best riders around.

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Full-on media coverage for the women!

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Lined up, the nerves getting ready.

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Ready to roll.

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Going for it from the gun.

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A few nice attacks were made, but nothing stuck.

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It’s always hard work at the front.

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Focusing on the hard effort required to make it through the race.

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Huge effort trying to lead it out in the last laps.

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1 lap to go, the main field feels the strain as the pace gets high.

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Lululemon finished it off.

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I won!

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A moment taken away from the circus for a team shot.

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Even the dogs can’t wait to see the action at the ATOC!

More Ideas on Triathlon Pacing

paces, power, and energy


Again on the topic of pacing and energy/fatigue management in 70.3 or other long-course triathlons, I wanted to come up with a way of visualizing different pacing strategies and their relation to each other, and to roughly calculate how pacing might work in an abstract way. Clearly, I don’t think that the numbers I’ve come up with are going to be exactly the same as what will happen in the real world, but at the same time, I think the numbers I’ve crunched or estimated are very reasonable and shed some light on what an optimal strategy might be.

So, I have some good experience from training with a power meter for years what kind of energy expenditure is reasonable for me over the course of 2 hours (roughly the length of the bike leg), or 4 hours (roughly the length of a whole 70.3), and more and less than those durations. Even though endurance has been a strength of mine in cycling, I’ve never specifically trained to produce the most power that I can for 4 hours at a time, because that would be pretty irrelevant to the demands of bike racing. To that end, I think that there will be some room for improvement there, and I have ideas for how I want to try to accomplish that. In the meantime, we can just speculate about what I might shoot for on the bike and on the run in 70.3 races, though I do have the benefit of doing the Miami 70.3 on two occasions already, so I’m not totally in the dark about this, ha.

Anyway, you can see above the result of my consultation with some running calorie calculators and my estimation of time-trial speeds correlated with power. For running, the relationship between speed and energy expenditure is not linear, but close to it for the speeds in question. Cycling, on the other hand,  has a hugely exponential increase in power requirements as cycling speed goes up. Namely, running 8 mph (7:30/mile) requires about 80% the energy expenditure as running 10 mph (6:00/mile). Cycling 25 mph (~280w) requires only about 2/3 the power of cycling 30 mph (~400w)!!! That’s not fair!

So what does that mean? Where is it easier to save time in a 70.3 event?

Well, let’s say you have a 75kg/165lb athlete. That’s about how much I’ve weighed during most of my cycling career (about 74-75kg/163-165lb). For me, that’s going to mean that riding a 70.3 bike leg at 320-330w is a bit of a challenge, but quite do-able. Let’s say this will equate to about 2:08 for a flat 70.3 bike leg (just an estimate, but quite reasonable). It also means that if I expend energy at the same rate on the run, I’ll cover the 70.3 run leg in maybe 1:25 or so.

If we have a 70kg/154lb athlete, then it may be very challenging to ride at 325w, but maybe 300w is reasonable. This may equate to about 2:14 on the bike leg. On the other hand, the same energy expenditure on the run will probably yield a 1:20 run leg, give or take.

Just for kicks, I’ve also included below some rough estimates I entered into a spreadsheet as I’ve been thinking about these issues and my goals in training for 70.3.

Anyway, I’m thinking about it, but really, only time and experience will tell. I still like to have an idea of what I’m shooting for, and perhaps some of this is interesting or useful to some of my readers. I hope so. :)